This book is designed to introduce doctoral and graduate students to the process of scientific research in the social sciences, business, education, public health, and related disciplines. It is a one-stop, comprehensive, and compact source for foundational concepts in behavioral research, and can serve as a stand-alone text or as a supplement to research readings in any course on research methods.
The contents and examples are designed for anyone interested in behavioral research (not just information systems people), and so, the book should appeal to most business programs, social sciences, education, public health, and related disciplines.
JIBS receives many manuscripts that report findings from analyzing survey data based on same-respondent replies. This can be problematic since same-respondent studies can suffer from common method variance (CMV). Currently, authors who submit manuscripts to JIBS that appear to suffer from CMV are asked to perform validity checks and resubmit their manuscripts. This letter from the Editors is designed to outline the current state of best practice for handling CMV in international business research.
Lindell and Whitney (2001), Podsakoff et al. (2003) and Malhotra, Kim, and Patil (2006) review several statistical methods that are more sophisticated than Harman's test, which can be used to test and possibly control for CMV. Different statistical remedies are available for different types of research settings and different sources of CMV. Promising statistical remedies include a partial correlation procedure and a direct measure of a latent common method factor. The former method partials out the first unrotated factor from the exploratory factor analysis, and then continues to determine whether the theoretical relationships among the variables of interest do still hold. The latter method allows questionnaire items to load on their theoretical constructs, as well as on a latent CMV factor, and examines the significance of theoretical constructs with or without the common factor method. Both methods have their own limitations, however, one of which is the assumption that the sources of CMV can be well identified and validly measured.Footnote 7 A recommended solution is to use multiple remedies, not just one remedy, in order to assuage the various concerns about CMV.
These statistics, of course, tell us only how frequently common methods appear in recently published JIBS articles, not the magnitude of the potential bias from CMV in these articles. Previous research estimating the magnitude of the effects did not include JIBS articles; see for example, Doty and Glick (1998) and Cote and Buckley (1987). So, the most we can say is there may be a problem based on frequency of usage of common methods, but at present we have no estimates of the magnitude of the problem.
Based on this short survey, it appears that common method bias has not been recognized nor addressed by most IB scholars, even in JIBS, the top journal in the field of international business. We recognize, of course, that standards for rigor in empirical work are continually rising. What were acceptable methodological practices even five years ago can easily and rapidly become unacceptable as social science scholars better understand the limitations of their empirical techniques and develop more rigorous methods for identifying and correcting for potential biases in their work. The purpose of our Letter from the Editors is therefore not to criticize earlier research, but rather to encourage IB scholars to implement current best practices in research methods. We argue that the hurdle barrier must now be set higher in JIBS vis à vis CMV. It is time for IB scholars to address, and reduce or offset where feasible, the use of common methods in their empirical work.
As international business researchers, we also recognize that sometimes common methods cannot be totally avoided, for example, if the research probes into difficult waters where data of any kind are scarce such as in severely understudied parts of the world (Africa, the Middle East), or where the research undertaken is so novel or insightful that this may be considered over standard methodological considerations. Editors and reviewers should not reject innovative manuscripts that push the boundaries of our knowledge of international business solely on the grounds of common methods. In such situations, the gains in creativity and impact might outweigh the loss of methodological purity.
This paper discusses three common research approaches, qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods, along with the various research designs commonly used when conducting research within the framework of each approach. Creswell (2002) noted that quantitative research is the process of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and writing the results of a study, while qualitative research is the approach to data collection, analysis, and report writing differing from the traditional, quantitative approaches. This paper provides a further distinction between quantitative and qualitative research methods. This paper also presents a summary of the different research methods to conduct research in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies.
Both primary and secondary research have their places. Primary research can support the findings found through secondary research (and fill knowledge gaps), while secondary research can be a starting point for further primary research. Because of this, these research methods are often combined for optimal research results that are accurate at both the micro and macro level.
The Journal of Business Research applies theory developed from business research to actual business situations. Recognizing the intricate relationships between the many areas of business activity, JBR examines a wide variety of business decisions, processes and activities within the actual business setting. Theoretical and empirical advances in buyer behavior, finance, organizational theory and behavior, marketing, risk and insurance and international business are evaluated on a regular basis. Published for executives, researchers and scholars alike, the Journal aids the application of empirical research to practical situations and theoretical findings to the reality of the business world.
The Journal of Business Research (JBR) is intended to be an outlet for theoretical and empirical research contributions for scholars and practitioners in the business field. JBR invites manuscripts particularly in the areas of accounting, buying behavior, finance, international business, management, marketing, and risk and insurance. Application of theory and research in these areas to related fields of inquiry are welcomed, e.g., applications to urban affairs, health, law, and psychology. Upon acceptance of an article by the journal, the author(s) will be asked to transfer copyright in the article to the publisher (or Society, where appropriate). This will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information under the U.S. Copyright law. 1e1e36bf2d