1:Geographical information systems and society 2:Spatial data and their models: formal abstractions of reality 3:Geographical data in the computer 4:Data input and verification 5:Visualization 6:Exploring geographical data 7:Analysis of discrete entities in space 8:Interpolation 1: deterministic and spline-based approaches 9:Interpolation 2: geostatistical approaches 10:Analysis of continuous fields 11:Digital elevation models 12:Space-time modelling and error propagation 13:Fuzzy sets and fuzzy geographical objects 14:GIS, transformations, and future developments
Health information technology can support the development of national learning health and care systems, which can be defined as health and care systems that continuously use data-enabled infrastructure to support policy and planning, public health, and personalisation of care. The COVID-19 pandemic has offered an opportunity to assess how well equipped the UK is to leverage health information technology and apply the principles of a national learning health and care system in response to a major public health shock. With the experience acquired during the pandemic, each country within the UK should now re-evaluate their digital health and care strategies. After leaving the EU, UK countries now need to decide to what extent they wish to engage with European efforts to promote interoperability between electronic health records. Major priorities for strengthening health information technology in the UK include achieving the optimal balance between top-down and bottom-up implementation, improving usability and interoperability, developing capacity for handling, processing, and analysing data, addressing privacy and security concerns, and encouraging digital inclusivity. Current and future opportunities include integrating electronic health records across health and care providers, investing in health data science research, generating real-world data, developing artificial intelligence and robotics, and facilitating public-private partnerships. Many ethical challenges and unintended consequences of implementation of health information technology exist. To address these, there is a need to develop regulatory frameworks for the development, management, and procurement of artificial intelligence and health information technology systems, create public-private partnerships, and ethically and safely apply artificial intelligence in the National Health Service.
Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods.
The ability to retrieve relevant information is at the heart of every aspect of research and development in the life sciences industry. Information is often distributed across multiple systems and recorded in a way that makes it difficult to piece together the complete picture. Differences in data formats, naming schemes and network protocols amongst information sources, both public and private, must be overcome, and user interfaces not only need to be able to tap into these diverse information sources but must also assist users in filtering out extraneous information and highlighting the key relationships hidden within an aggregated set of information. The Semantic Web community has made great strides in proposing solutions to these problems, and many efforts are underway to apply Semantic Web techniques to the problem of information retrieval in the life sciences space. This article gives an overview of the principles underlying a Semantic Web-enabled information retrieval system: creating a unified abstraction for knowledge using the RDF semantic network model; designing semantic lenses that extract contextually relevant subsets of information; and assembling semantic lenses into powerful information displays. Furthermore, concrete examples of how these principles can be applied to life science problems including a scenario involving a drug discovery dashboard prototype called BioDash are provided.
The container format not only provides a means of determining that the zipped content represents anEPUB publication (the mimetype file), but also provides a universally named directoryof non-normative resources (/META-INF). Key among these resources is thecontainer.xml file, which directs reading systems to the available package documents. Refer to 4. Open Container Format (OCF) for more information about the container format.
While conceptually simple, an EPUB publication is more than just a collection of HTML pages anddependent assets in a ZIP package as presented here. Additional information about the primaryfeatures and functionality that EPUB publications provide to enhance the reading experience isavailable from the referenced specifications, and a more general introduction to the features ofEPUB 3 is provided in the non-normative [epub-overview-33].
Refer to [epub-rs-33] for the processing requirements for reading systems. Although it is notnecessary that EPUB creators read that document to create EPUB publications, an understanding ofhow reading systems present the content can help craft publications for optimal presentation tousers.
A core media type resource is one that reading systems have to support, so it can be usedwithout restriction in EPUB or foreign content documents. For more information about core mediatype resources, refer to 3.2 Core media types.
Inclusion as a core media type resource does not mean that all reading systems will support therendering of a resource. Reading system support also depends on the capabilities of theapplication (e.g., a reading system with a viewport must support image core media typeresources, but a reading system without a viewport does not). Refer to Core media types [epub-rs-33] for moreinformation about which reading systems rendering capabilities require support for which coremedia type resources.
Although the EPUB container provides the ability to reference more than onepackage document, this specification does not define how to interpret, or selectfrom, the available options. Refer to [epub-multi-rend-11] for moreinformation on how to bundle more than one rendering of the content.
The package document does not provide complex metadata encoding capabilities. If EPUB creators need to provide more detailed information, they can associate metadata records (e.g.,that conform to an international standard such as [onix] or are created for custom purposes)using the link element. This approach allows reading systems to process the metadata in itsnative form, avoiding the potential problems and information loss caused by translating to usethe minimal package document structure.
The properties attribute provides informationto reading systems about the content of a resource. This information enables discoveryof key resources, such as the cover image and EPUB navigation document. It also allowsreading systems to optimize rendering by indicating, for example, whether the resourcecontains embedded scripting, MathML, or SVG.
EPUB creators should use unprefixed properties and reading systems should supportcurrent CSS specifications. This specification retains the widely used prefixedproperties from [epubcontentdocs-301] but removes support for the less-used ones. EPUBcreators should use CSS-native solutions for the removed properties wheneveravailable.
EPUB creators should note that supportfor container-constrained scripting in reading systems is only recommended inreflowable documents [epub-rs-33]. Furthermore, reading system support infixed-layout documents is optional.
EPUB creators should note that support for spine-level scripting in reading systems is only recommended in fixed-layout documentsand reflowable documents set toscroll [epub-rs-33]. Furthermore, reading system support in all other contextsis optional.
Note that reading systems may strip scripting, styling, and HTML formatting as they generatenavigational interfaces from information found in the EPUB navigation document, and this may makethe result difficult to read. If EPUB creators require such formatting and functionality, then theyshould also include the EPUB navigation document in the spine. The use ofprogressive enhancement techniques for scripting and styling of the navigation document will helpensure the content will retain its integrity when rendered in a non-browser context. 2b1af7f3a8