Written with heat transfer engineers and research engineers who want to review heat transfer design methods for tubular heat exchangers. The data book covers design considerations for enhanced heat exchangers, single-phase shell-side flows & heat transfer, heat transfer to air-cooled heat exchangers, condensation on external surfaces, condensation inside tubes, boiling heat transfer on external surfaces, two phase flow pattern, falling film evaporation, thermodynamics of refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil, void fraction in two-phase flows, post dryout heat transfer, flow boiling and two phase flow of CO2, and two phase flow and boiling in microchannels.
2 Preface Welcome to the new edition of Wolverine Tube Inc. s Wolverine Engineering Data Book III. This book has been written primarily with heat transfer engineers in mind but also for research engineers who want to get caught up on the latest advances in heat transfer design methods for tubular heat exchangers. The objectives of the book are to present a limited review of the basic principles of heat transfer and then describe what I currently consider to be the best thermal design methods available. Hence, each chapter presents a detailed state-of-the-art review of heat transfer and fluid flow research of practical interest to heat exchanger designers, manufacturers and end users; however, for more exhaustive treatments the reader is recommended to go to the many references and other reviews cited. The idea to make this a web-based book available on Wolverine Tube Inc. s website is to make this information more readily available to the reader. New chapters will be added as they become ready and also the existing chapters will be updated with new methods as they appear in the literature every few years to keep this whole reference book up to date. Also, Chapter 1 presents a video gallery of heat transfer and flow phenomena that I think will be quite useful to heat transfer engineers who have never had the chance to see what is in fact happening inside their heat exchangers! I, myself, have pulled Wolverine Engineering Data Book II down from the shelf many times over the years to look for design information to use my own engineering work. Data Book II is also available on the same website as Data Book III and contains much valuable information that has not been repeated in Data Book III. Finally, I would like to thank Wolverine Tube Inc. for inviting me to write this new edition of Data Book III, in particular Massoud Neshan and Petur Thors of the Research and Development group. John R. Thome, Author Table of Contents i-2
3 About the Author John R. Thome is Professor of Heat and Mass Transfer at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland since 1998, where he is director of the Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM) in the Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology (STI). His primary interests of research are two-phase flow and heat transfer, covering boiling and condensation of internal flows, external flows, enhanced surfaces and microchannels. He received his Ph.D. at Oxford University, England in 1978 and was formerly a professor at Michigan State University. From 1984 to 1998, he set up and operated his own international engineering consulting company specializing in enhanced heat transfer surfaces and enhanced heat exchanger design methods. He is the author of several books: Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer (1990) and Convective Boiling and Condensation (1994). He received the ASME Heat Transfer Division's Best Paper Award in 1998 for a 3-part paper on flow boiling heat transfer published in the Journal of Heat Transfer. The website of his laboratory is and his e- mail address is email@example.com. Table of Contents i-3 153554b96e